Pulmonary Procedures


Bronchoscopy is a procedure that allows your doctor to look at your airway through a thin viewing instrument called a bronchoscope. During a bronchoscopy, your doctor will examine your throat, larynx, trachea, and lower airways.

Bronchoscopy may be done to diagnose problems with the airway, the lung, or with the lymph nodes in your chest, or to treat problems such an object or growth in the airway.

Types Of Bronchoscopy

Flexible Bronchoscopy

Uses along, thin, lighted tube to look at your airway. The flexible bronchoscope is used more often than the ridge bronchoscope as it usually does not require general anesthesia, it is more comfortable for the patient, and offers a better view of the smaller airways in addition to allowing your doctor to remove small samples of tissue.

Rigid Bronchoscopy

Usually done with general anesthesia and uses a straight, hollow metal tube.

It is used:

  • When there is bleeding in the airway that could block the flexible scope’s view.
  • To remove large tissue samples for biopsy.
  • To clear the airway of objects (such a pieces of food) that cannot be removed using a flexible bronchoscope.

​Bronchoscope may be used to:

  • Find he cause of airway problems, such a bleeding, trouble breathing, or a long-term (chronic) cough.
  • Take tissue samples when other tests, such as a chest X-Ray or CT Scan, show problems with the lung or with the lymph nodes in the chest.
  • Diagnose lung disease by collecting tissue or mucus (sputum) samples for examination.
  • Diagnose and determine the extent of lung cancer
  • Remove objects blocking the airway
  • Check and treat growths in the airway
  • Control bleeding
  • Treat cancer of the airway using radioactive materials (brachytherapy.)

Transthoracic Needle Biopsy (Tnb)

is a safe rapid method used to achieve definitive diagnosis for most thoracic lesions, whether the lesion is located in the pleura, the lung parenchyma, or the mediastinum. Diffuse disease and solitary lesions are equally approachable. Most TNBs are performed on an outpatient basis by using local anesthesia with or without conscious sedation. Virtually any location in the chest can be safely accessed by means of TNB.


Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural space.) It is done with a needle (sometimes plastic catheter) inserted throughout the chest wall. Ultrasound images are often used to guide the placement of the needle. This pleural fluid may be sent to a lab to determine what may be causing the fluid to build up in the pleural space.

​Normally only a small amount of pleural fluid is present in the pleural space. A buildup of excess pleural fluid (pleural effusion) may be caused by many conditions, such as infection, inflammation, heart failure, or cancer. If a large amount of fluid is present is may be hard to breathe. Fluid inside the pleural space may be found during a physical examination and is usually confirmed by a chest X-Ray.

​Why Is It Done?

Thoracentesis may be done to:

  • Find the cause of excess pleural fluid (pleural effusion.)
  • Relieve shortness of breath and pain caused by pleural effusion.